There are plenty of videos on youtube explaining the mathy side of neural networks, as well as the broader concepts. I highly recommend 3blue1brown’s channel — excellent visualizations!
The most important part is to practice visualizing the components in action; intuition is still the primary driver for insights. Distill is a great publication for visualizing what’s really happening, too.
When I am working on a new concept, I find myself floating in a space, and every point in that space represents a special arrangement of neurons — the ‘space of synaptic weights’. Only when I need to formalize a concept does the intuition become an equation or algorithm. Math describes the answer, but the truth is found when you imagine being there.